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Archives of 2020 in english

Archives of 2020 in english

  1. Code for: Disruption of biological processes in the Anthropocene: the case of phenological mismatch

    Code for: Disruption of biological processes in the Anthropocene: the case of phenological mismatch


    CRAN R code to analyze disruption of plant-pollinator networks for the article: Disruption of biological processes in the Anthropocene: the case of phenological mismatch.

    Citation Publisher Details

    Abstract:

    CRAN R code to analyze disruption of plant-pollinator networks for the article: Disruption of biological processes in the Anthropocene: the case of phenological mismatch

    Citation:
  2. Les ateliers de prévention des effets des écrans à la PMI Pierre Sémard de Saint-Denis

    • M Bossière
      M Bossière
      M Montévil
      M Montévil
      A Kunvari
      A Kunvari
      PMI Pierre Sémard
      PMI Pierre Sémard
      H Yacouben
      H Yacouben
    • en
    • Midi-Santé

    Depuis deux ans, le philosophe Bernard Stiegler, récemment disparu, a initié une recherche-action sur la prévention aux effets des écrans chez les enfants, pilotée par l’IRI (Institut de Recherche et d’Innovation du Centre Pompidou). Une série d’ateliers est menée au sein de la PMI Pierre Sémard de…

  3. From physics to biology by extending criticality and symmetry breakings: An update

    From physics to biology by extending criticality and symmetry breakings: An update

    Acta Europeana Systemica


    We introduce our theoretical analysis in biology and show that symmetries play a radically different role in this discipline, by comparison with physics.

    Manuscript Citation Publisher Full text

    Abstract:

    Symmetries play a major role in physics, in particular since the work by E. Noether and H. Weyl in the first half of last century. Herein, we briefly review their role by recalling how symmetry changes allow to conceptually move from classical to relativistic and quantum physics. We then introduce our ongoing theoretical analysis in biology and show that symmetries play a radically different role in this discipline, when compared to those in current physics. By this comparison, we stress that symmetries must be understood in relation to conservation and stability properties, as represented in the theories. We posit that the dynamics of biological organisms, in their various levels of organization, are not “just” processes, but permanent (extended, in our terminology) critical transitions and, thus, symmetry changes. Within the limits of a relative structural stability (or interval of viability), qualitative variability is at the core of these transitions.

    Keywords: Coherent structures, Critical transitions, downward causation, Hidden variables, Levels of organization, Symmetries, Systems biology

    Citation:

    Longo, Giuseppe, and Maël Montévil. 2020. “From Physics to Biology by Extending Criticality and Symmetry Breakings: An Update.” Acta Europeana Systemica 9 (1): 77–92. https://doi.org/10.14428/aes.v9i1.56043

  4. Historicity at the heart of biology

    Historicity at the heart of biology

    Theory in Biosciences


    Most mathematical modeling in biology rely on the epistemology of physics. By contrast, we argue that historicity comes first in biology.

    Manuscript Citation Publisher Full text

    Abstract:

    Most mathematical modeling in biology relies either implicitly or explicitly on the epistemology of physics. The underlying conception is that the historicity of biological objects would not matter to understand a situation here and now, or, at least, historicity would not impact the method of modeling. We analyze that it is not the case with concrete examples. Historicity forces a conceptual reconfiguration where equations no longer play a central role. We argue that all observations depend on objects defined by their historical origin instead of their relations as in physics. Therefore, we propose that biological variations and historicity come first, and regularities are constraints with limited validity in biology. Their proper theoretical and empirical use requires specific rationales.

    Keywords: Historicity, Organization, Epistemology, Mathematical modeling, Constraints

    Citation:

    Montévil, Maël. 2020. “Historicity at the Heart of Biology.” Theory in Biosciences, July. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12064-020-00320-8

  5. Panel: Towards anti-entropic exorganisms and exorganisations in the Anthropocene. Bioeconomics, Institutions, Localities

    • A Alombert
      A Alombert
      M Montévil
      M Montévil
      M Krzykawski
      M Krzykawski
    • en
    • Anthropocenes: Reworking of the Wound

    Why should we invest in the concept of entropy to face the challenges of the Anthropocene? Of course, entropy production is a more accurate description of physical processes than energy consumption – and the difference between the two concepts has applications. However, entropy has other ramifications…

  6. The Identity of Organisms in Scientific Practice: Integrating Historical and Relational Conceptions

    The Identity of Organisms in Scientific Practice: Integrating Historical and Relational Conceptions

    Frontiers in Physiology


    We address the identity of biological organisms in scientific practices by combining historical and relational, organizational conceptions.

    Manuscript Citation Publisher Full text

    Abstract:

    We address the identity of biological organisms at play in experimental and modeling practices. We first examine the central tenets of two general conceptions, and we assess their respective strengths and weaknesses. The historical conception, on the one hand, characterizes organisms’ identity by looking at their past, and specifically at their genealogical connection with a common ancestor. The relational conception, on the other hand, interprets organisms’ identity by referring to a set of distinctive relations between their parts, and between the organism and its environment. While the historical and relational conceptions are understood as opposed and conflicting, we submit that they are also fundamentally complementary. Accordingly, we put forward a hybrid conception, in which historical and relational (and more specifically, organizational) aspects of organisms’ identity sustain and justify each other. Moreover, we argue that organisms’ identity is not only hybrid but also bounded, insofar as the compliance with specific identity criteria tends to vanish as time passes, especially across generations. We spell out the core conceptual framework of this conception, and we outline an original formal representation. We contend that the hybrid and bounded conception of organisms’ identity suits the epistemological needs of biological practices, particularly with regards to the generalization and reproducibility of experimental results, and the integration of mathematical models with experiments.

    Citation:
  7. Non-monotonicity of BPA


    In their presentation, the scientists provide background on CLARITY-BPA, the setup of their mammary gland study, and a detailed discussion of the analytical and statistical methods applied. They explain that their study shows clear statistical evidence of non-monotonic dose-response curves (NMDRC) …

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