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Contents tagged “evolution”

There are 8 contents with the tag “evolution”:

  1. Measurement in biology is methodized by theory

    Measurement in biology is methodized by theory

    Biology & Philosophy


    We characterize measurement in biology from a theoretical perspective with a focus on historicity. We analyze experimental strategies and reproducibility.

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    Abstract:

    We characterize access to empirical objects in biology from a theoretical perspective. Unlike objects in current physical theories, biological objects are the result of a history and their variations continue to generate a history. This property is the starting point of our concept of measurement. We argue that biological measurement is relative to a natural history which is shared by the different objects subjected to the measurement and is more or less constrained by biologists. We call symmetrization the theoretical and often concrete operation which leads to considering biological objects as equivalent in a measurement. Last, we use our notion of measurement to analyze research strategies. Some strategies aim to bring biology closer to the epistemology of physical theories, by studying objects as similar as possible, while others build on biological diversity.

    Keywords: Biological measurement, evolution, experiments, strains, symmetry, systematics

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  2. From the Century of the Gene to that of the Organism: Introduction to New Theoretical Perspectives

    From the Century of the Gene to that of the Organism: Introduction to New Theoretical Perspectives

    Life Sciences, Information Sciences


    Our group proposes three main principles for a theory of organisms, namely: the default state, the principle of variation and the principle of organization.

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    Abstract:

    Summary This chapter briefly presents and describes the three main principles that the group proposes for a theory of organisms, namely: the default state, proliferation with variation and motility, the principle of variation and the principle of organization. It is crucial to critique the philosophical and theoretical position on which the biological research feeding into the program is based and which has dominated biomedical research for the last 70 years. Physical theories are founded on stable mathematical structures, based onregularities and especially on theoretical symmetries. At the time of cell theory formulation and still today, cell theory plays a federating role between evolution biology and organism biology. Finally, analysis of the differences between the physics of inanimate and living matter leads to the proposal of three principles that provide aviable perspective for the construction of a necessary theory of organisms.

    Keywords: cell theory, evolution biology, mathematical structures, organism biology, philosophical position, physical theories, theoretical symmetries

    Citation:

    Montévil, Maël, Giuseppe Longo, and Ana M. Soto. 2018. “From the Century of the Gene to That of the Organism: Introduction to New Theoretical Perspectives.” In Life Sciences, Information Sciences, edited by T. Gaudin, D. Lacroix, M.‐C. Maurel, and J.‐C. Pomerol, 81–97. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119452713.ch9

  3. From Logic to Biology via Physics: a survey

    From Logic to Biology via Physics: a survey

    Logical Methods in Computer Science


    We summarize the theoretical ideas of our book, Perspectives on Organisms, where we discuss biological time, anti-entropy, randomness, incompleteness, etc.

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    This short text summarizes the work in biology proposed in our book, Perspectives on Organisms, where we analyse the unity proper to organisms by looking at it from different viewpoints. We discuss the theoretical roles of biological time, complexity, theoretical symmetries, singularities and critical transitions. We explicitly borrow from the conclusions in some key chapters and introduce them by a reflection on "incompleteness", also proposed in the book. We consider that incompleteness is a fundamental notion to understand the way in which we construct knowledge. Then we will introduce an approach to biological dynamics where randomness is central to the theoretical determination: randomness does not oppose biological stability but contributes to it by variability, adaptation, and diversity. Then, evolutionary and ontogenetic trajectories are continual changes of coherence structures involving symmetry changes within an ever-changing global stability.

    Keywords: Incompleteness, symmetries, randomness, critical transitions, biological evolution and ontogenesis

    Citation:

    Longo, Giuseppe, and Maël Montévil. 2017. “From Logic to Biology via Physics: A Survey.” Logical Methods in Computer Science 13 (November): Issue 4; 1860-5974. https://doi.org/10.23638/LMCS-13(4:21)2017

  4. Philosophical Accounts of Biological Functions

    Philosophical Accounts of Biological Functions

    Science & Education


    Review of "A critical overview of biological functions" by Justin Garson (2016). I focus on the etiological and the organizational accounts of functions.

  5. Du siècle du gène à celui de l’organisme : introduction à de nouvelles perspectives théoriques

    Du siècle du gène à celui de l’organisme : introduction à de nouvelles perspectives théoriques

    Sciences de la vie, sciences de l’information


    Nous décrivons trois principes proposés pour une théorie des organismes : l'état par défaut des cellules et les principes de variation et d'organisation.

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    Les organismes, qu’ils soient uni ou multi-cellulaires, sont des agents capables de créer leurs propres normes ; ils articulent continuellement leur capacité à créer de la nouveauté et de la stabilité, c’est-à-dire qu’ils combinent plasticité et robustesse. Ici, nous présentons et articulons brièvement les trois principes proposés récemment pour une théorie des organismes, à savoir : l’état par défaut, prolifération avec variation et motilité, le principe de variation et le principe d’organisation. Ces principes modifient profondément les observables biologiques et leur nature théorique par rapport aux cadres des théories physiques. Ce changement radical ouvre la possibilité d’ancrer la modélisation mathématique à des principes proprement biologiques.

    Citation:

    Montévil, Maël, G. Longo, and Ana M. Soto. 2017. “Du Siècle Du Gène à Celui de l’organisme : Introduction à de Nouvelles Perspectives Théoriques.” In Sciences de La Vie, Sciences de l’information, edited by T. Gaudin, D. Lacroix, M.-C. Maurel, and J.-C. Pomerol, 76–90. Paris: ISTE-Editions. https://www.istegroup.com/fr/produit/sciences-de-la-vie-sciences-de-linformation/

  6. In search of principles for a Theory of Organisms

    In search of principles for a Theory of Organisms

    Journal of biosciences


    Lacking an operational theory to explain the organization and behavior of matter in organisms hinders progress in biology. We propose hypothesis for such a theory.

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    Lacking an operational theory to explain the organization and behaviour of matter in unicellular and multicellular organisms hinders progress in biology. Such a theory should address life cycles from ontogenesis to death. This theory would complement the theory of evolution that addresses phylogenesis, and would posit theoretical extensions to accepted physical principles and default states in order to grasp the living state of matter and define proper biological observables. Thus, we favour adopting the default state implicit in Darwin’s theory, namely, cell proliferation with variation plus motility, and a framing principle, namely, life phenomena manifest themselves as non-identical iterations of morphogenetic processes. From this perspective, organisms become a consequence of the inherent variability generated by proliferation, motility and self-organization. Morphogenesis would then be the result of the default state plus physical constraints, like gravity, and those present in living organisms, like muscular tension.

    Keywords: Animals, Biological Evolution, Biophysics/methods, Cell Division, Mice, Models, Morphogenesis, Thermodynamics

    Citation:

    Longo, Giuseppe, Mael Montevil, Carlos Sonnenschein, and Ana M. Soto. 2015. “In Search of Principles for a Theory of Organisms.” Journal of Biosciences 40 (5): 955–68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12038-015-9574-9

  7. Perspectives on Organisms: Biological time, symmetries and singularities

    Perspectives on Organisms: Biological time, symmetries and singularities


    This authored monograph introduces a genuinely theoretical approach to biology. Starting point is the investigation of empirical biological scaling including their variability, which is found in the literature, e.g. allometric relationships, fractals, etc. The book then analyzes two different...

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    Abstract:

    This authored monograph introduces a genuinely theoretical approach to biology. Starting point is the investigation of empirical biological scaling including their variability, which is found in the literature, e.g. allometric relationships, fractals, etc. The book then analyzes two different aspects of biological time: first, a supplementary temporal dimension to accommodate proper biological rhythms; secondly, the concepts of protension and retention as a means of local organization of time in living organisms. Moreover, the book investigates the role of symmetry in biology, in view of its ubiquitous importance in physics. In relation with the notion of extended critical transitions, the book proposes that organisms and their evolution can be characterized by continued symmetry changes, which accounts for the irreducibility of their historicity and variability. The authors also introduce the concept of anti-entropy as a measure for the potential of variability, being equally understood as alterations in symmetry. By this, the book provides a mathematical account of Gould’s analysis of phenotypic complexity with respect to biological evolution. The target audience primarily comprises researchers interested in new theoretical approaches to biology, from physical, biological or philosophical backgrounds, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students who want to enter this field.

    Citation:

    Longo, G., and Maël Montévil. 2014. Perspectives on Organisms: Biological Time, Symmetries and Singularities. Lecture Notes in Morphogenesis. Heidelberg: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35938-5

  8. Randomness Increases Order in Biological Evolution

    Randomness Increases Order in Biological Evolution

    Computation, Physics and Beyond


    We revisit the analysis of anti-entropy. In particular, we analyze how randomness stemming from variability leads to the growth of biological organization.

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    In this text, we revisit part of the analysis of anti-entropy in [4] and develop further theoretical reflections. In particular, we analyze how randomness, an essential component of biological variability, is associated to the growth of biological organization, both in ontogenesis and in evolution. This approach, in particular, focuses on the role of global entropy production and provides a tool for a mathematical understanding of some fundamental observations by Gould on the increasing phenotypic complexity along evolution. Lastly, we analyze the situation in terms of theoretical symmetries, in order to further specify the biological meaning of anti-entropy as well as its strong link with randomness.

    Keywords: Entropy Production, Biological Evolution, Irreversible Process, Combinatorial Complexity, Biological Organization

    Citation:

    Longo, Giuseppe, and Maël Montévil. 2012. “Randomness Increases Order in Biological Evolution.” In Computation, Physics and Beyond, edited by Michael J. Dinneen, Bakhadyr Khoussainov, and André Nies, 7160:289–308. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27654-5_22

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