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Contents tagged “organisms”

There are 4 contents with the tag “organisms”:

  1. From the Century of the Gene to that of the Organism: Introduction to New Theoretical Perspectives

    From the Century of the Gene to that of the Organism: Introduction to New Theoretical Perspectives

    Life Sciences, Information Sciences


    Our group proposes three main principles for a theory of organisms, namely: the default state, the principle of variation and the principle of organization.

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    Abstract:

    Summary This chapter briefly presents and describes the three main principles that the group proposes for a theory of organisms, namely: the default state, proliferation with variation and motility, the principle of variation and the principle of organization. It is crucial to critique the philosophical and theoretical position on which the biological research feeding into the program is based and which has dominated biomedical research for the last 70 years. Physical theories are founded on stable mathematical structures, based onregularities and especially on theoretical symmetries. At the time of cell theory formulation and still today, cell theory plays a federating role between evolution biology and organism biology. Finally, analysis of the differences between the physics of inanimate and living matter leads to the proposal of three principles that provide aviable perspective for the construction of a necessary theory of organisms.

    Keywords: cell theory, evolution biology, mathematical structures, organism biology, philosophical position, physical theories, theoretical symmetries

    Citation:

    Montévil, Maël, Giuseppe Longo, and Ana M. Soto. 2018. “From the Century of the Gene to That of the Organism: Introduction to New Theoretical Perspectives.” In Life Sciences, Information Sciences, edited by T. Gaudin, D. Lacroix, M.‐C. Maurel, and J.‐C. Pomerol, 81–97. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119452713.ch9

  2. Du siècle du gène à celui de l’organisme : introduction à de nouvelles perspectives théoriques

    Du siècle du gène à celui de l’organisme : introduction à de nouvelles perspectives théoriques

    Sciences de la vie, sciences de l’information


    Nous décrivons trois principes proposés pour une théorie des organismes : l'état par défaut des cellules et les principes de variation et d'organisation.

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    Abstract:

    Les organismes, qu’ils soient uni ou multi-cellulaires, sont des agents capables de créer leurs propres normes ; ils articulent continuellement leur capacité à créer de la nouveauté et de la stabilité, c’est-à-dire qu’ils combinent plasticité et robustesse. Ici, nous présentons et articulons brièvement les trois principes proposés récemment pour une théorie des organismes, à savoir : l’état par défaut, prolifération avec variation et motilité, le principe de variation et le principe d’organisation. Ces principes modifient profondément les observables biologiques et leur nature théorique par rapport aux cadres des théories physiques. Ce changement radical ouvre la possibilité d’ancrer la modélisation mathématique à des principes proprement biologiques.

    Citation:

    Montévil, Maël, G. Longo, and Ana M. Soto. 2017. “Du Siècle Du Gène à Celui de l’organisme : Introduction à de Nouvelles Perspectives Théoriques.” In Sciences de La Vie, Sciences de l’information, edited by T. Gaudin, D. Lacroix, M.-C. Maurel, and J.-C. Pomerol, 76–90. Paris: ISTE-Editions. https://www.istegroup.com/fr/produit/sciences-de-la-vie-sciences-de-linformation/

  3. From the century of the genome to the century of the organism: New theoretical approaches

    From the century of the genome to the century of the organism: New theoretical approaches

    Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Special issue


    This focused issue of Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology is entitled "From the century of the genome to the century of the organism: New theoretical approaches." It was developed during Ana M. Soto’s tenure as Blaise Pascal Chair of Biology 2013-15 at the Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS,...

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    Abstract:

    This focused issue of Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology is entitled "From the century of the genome to the century of the organism: New theoretical approaches." It was developed during Ana M. Soto’s tenure as Blaise Pascal Chair of Biology 2013-15 at the Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS, Paris, France). Giuseppe Longo was the Pascal Chair host at the ENS. This ongoing theoretical was also used as the content of a 10 session course attended by graduate students and post-graduates, which took place at the National Museum of Natural History and at the ENS. The attendants of course encouraged the guest editors to make this material easily available, hence the origin of PBMB issue.

    Citation:

    Soto, Ana M., G. Longo, Denis Noble, Nicole Perret, Maël Montévil, Carlos Sonnenschein, Matteo Mossio, Arnaud Pocheville, Paul-Antoine Miquel, and Su-Young Hwang. 2016. “From the Century of the Genome to the Century of the Organism: New Theoretical Approaches.” Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Special Issue 122 (1): 1–82. https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/progress-in-biophysics-and-molecular-biology/vol/122/issue/1

  4. From bottom-up approaches to levels of organization and extended critical transitions

    From bottom-up approaches to levels of organization and extended critical transitions

    Frontiers in Physiology


    Critical phenomena disrupt the mathematical determination at a given level, which leads to a new perspective on levels of organization.

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    Abstract:

    Biological thinking is structured by the notion of level of organization. We will show that this notion acquires a precise meaning in critical phenomena: they disrupt, by the appearance of infinite quantities, the mathematical (possibly equational) determination at a given level, when moving at an “higher” one. As a result, their analysis cannot be called genuinely bottom-up, even though it remains upward in a restricted sense. At the same time, criticality and related phenomena are very common in biology. Because of this, we claim that bottom-up approaches are not sufficient, in principle, to capture biological phenomena. In the second part of this paper, following the work of Francis Bailly, we discuss a strong criterium of level transition. The core idea of the criterium is to start from the breaking of the symmetries and determination at a “first” level in order to “move” at the others. If biological phenomena have multiple, sustained levels of organization in this sense, then they should be interpreted as extended critical transitions.

    Keywords: bottom-up, extended criticality, levels of organization, organism, renormalization, singularity

    Citation:

    Longo, G., Maël Montévil, and A. Pocheville. 2012. “From Bottom-up Approaches to Levels of Organization and Extended Critical Transitions.” Frontiers in Physiology 3 (232). https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2012.00232

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